The Movement of Goods and People: Causes & Consequences
Social Studies - Grade 9
This unit of inquiry is not a recipe book but rather a launch pad to inspire new BIG IDEAS. We encourage you to use and/or modify one, or several of the BIG IDEAS below. Adapt it to the grade/ ability level of your students.
The movement of goods and people between cities and countries has multiple causes and consequences on communities and societies as a whole.
How does the movement of goods and people relate to changes in a community and society? How does the movement of goods and people connect local communities and global economies? How does the movement of goods and people relate to tension in communities and society?
Choose or devise practices to encourage students to be open to new experiences and ways of thinking in your classroom. For example, the MindUP in-school program.
Discovery & Inspiration:
Launch the Project
• Introduce the Theme: Present the Enduring Understanding and Guiding Questions using vocabulary that is appropriate for your grade level.
• About Vancouver Biennale: Play a short video.
• Create Project Space: Brainstorm ideas to make the project theme visual and visible using bulletin boards, and/or a project corner to share relevant materials and inquiry questions and processes.
• Introduction to Sculpture and Public Art Unit Plan for information on how art has evolved over time and the unique experience sculptures and/or public art brings.
• Vancouver Biennale 2014-2016 Exhibition Theme: Introduce the exhibition theme: Open Borders / Crossroads Vancouver
• WOW Westminster (Jose Resende, Brazil)
• About Artist and Artwork (PDF)
Covered in the Reference Material for Inquiry Challenges list of this unit plan
Learning to Learn:
• Make a visit to WOW Westminster and encourage students to freely explore and interact with the art pieces individually and in groups.
BIG IDEAS Anywhere educators: View WOW Westminster Guided Tour Video MUTE ON and encourage students to explore at different angles individually and in groups.
• This Art Inquiry process enables the students to practice observing, describing, interpreting, and sharing visual information and personal experiences.
• Use the Art Inquiry Worksheet (PDF) to guide and capture their ideas and impressions. Customize or create your own Art Inquiry Worksheet as appropriate for your project and class needs.
• Sharing Art Inquiry Experience: Ask students to share the Art Inquiry Worksheet responses in class.
• View Guided Tour Video: View WOW Westminster Guided Tour Video again with SOUND ON.
• Significant Aspects of the Artist’s Life & Work : Using the following About Artist and Artwork (PDF), the teacher creates stations detailing the artist’s life and work. In small groups students rotate through these stations. Topics might include: (1) education and training; (2) life’s work; (2) materials and processes; (3) beliefs and values. At each station, students answer questions and/or complete tasks. For example, at the station “life’s work” students might plot the artist’s various installations on a map of the world.
• Artist Themes: The Movement of People & Goods – How is the movement of goods and people reflected in our everyday lives? As preliminary homework, students complete the Family History Worksheet.
1/ Students share their family history maps in groups of 5. These are posted on a bulletin board. Teacher leads a discussion around how the movement of ancestors is reflected in our current life through culture (different foods, religions, celebrations, traditions etc.).
2/ Students from a large circle around the room and look at the labels on a partner’s clothing to see where it was manufactured. Students share this information with the group.
3/ Teacher-led discussion: How do you think these items arrived in Canada?
4/ Teacher wrap-up: How might the movement of goods and people produce tension in communities or societies as a whole?
• Artist Themes: Movement & Tension – How does Resende’s work reflect movement and tension in society? Show students images of Resende’s work in locations throughout the world. Students brainstorm possible preliminary answers to this question. Teacher records these and posts them in a visible area of the classroom. Introduce the three guiding questions: (1) How does the movement of goods and people relate to changes in a community and society? (2) How does the movement goods and people connect local communities and global economies? and (3) How does the movement of goods and people relate to tension in communities and societies? Reconfirm that the purpose of this inquiry is to delve further into these questions and that answers and understandings are meant to evolve and change.
• Artist Themes: Shipping Containers – How does the movement of goods and people relate to Resende’s use of the shipping container? Play the following Ted-Ed Original (lessons that feature the words and ideas of educators brought to life by professional animators) of Sir Harold Evans, the author of They Made America, describing how frustration drove Malcom McLean, a small-town truck driver, to invent the shipping container. Containerization was born, and it transformed the modern global economy. Ask student to research the different types of containers and their uses. Two possible reference sites: Sea Box & Port Metro Vancouver. Teacher-led discussion: Why do you think Resende used shipping containers in his artwork?
• Movement & Tension: Cause & Consequence, The Cariboo Gold Rush – What were the causes and consequences of the Cariboo Gold Rush on New Westminster? How does this historical event reflect the themes of movement & tension in Resende’s work? During the Cariboo Gold Rush (1858) New Westminster was a major outfitting point for prospectors as all travel to the goldfield ports of Yale and Port Douglas was by steamboat or canoe up the Fraser River.
1/ Introduce/revisit the concept of Cause and Consequence.
2/ In groups, students investigate the consequences the unexpected number of people who arrived in 1858 and the effect had on New Westminster.
3/ Students are to come up with what they believe are 5 key causes and 5 key consequences of the Cariboo Gold Rush (see resource web sites below).
4/ Teacher leads the class through the ESP Conditions Gold Rush Chart. Ask students to assess to what extent individuals, groups, and social forces influenced the Cariboo Gold Rush using this Cause and Consequence Template as a guide
5/ Groups also answer the following questions at the end of their presentation to the class: What were the short-term consequences of the Gold Rush on New West? What were the long-term consequences? Were there any unintended consequences? If so, what were they? What significance does the Gold Rush have in New West today?
• Movement of People and Tension: Cause & Consequence, The Cariboo Gold Rush & First Nations
Part I – What impact did the Cariboo Gold rush have on First Nations? In discussions of the gold rush and the building of the Cariboo Wagon Road, the First Nations of the are often overlooked. The Wagon Road passed through the territories of several distinct groups, from roughly south to north the Nicola, Thompson, Shuswap, Chilcotin, and Carrier, The Qayqayt First Nation (qiqéyt) (pronounced Key-Kayt), also known as the New Westminster Indian Band, is one of the smallest First Nations in Canada and the only one registered without a land base. In groups, students fill out the final portion of their ESP Conditions Gold Rush Chart using the web resources below. Teacher leads a class through a discussion of the following questions: What were the short-term consequences of the Gold Rush on First Nations? What were the long-term consequences? Were there any unintended consequences? If so, what were they? What significance does the Gold Rush have for First Nations today?
Novel: The Golden Rose, Dayle Campbell Gaetz, 2003
Book: British Columbia: 1847-1871 Gold & Colonists, G.P.V. Akrigg & Helen Akrigg, 1977
Canada in the Making: Pioneers and Immigrants
Fisher, R. (1971-72, Winter). Joseph Trutch and Indian Land Policy. BC Studies.
Ormsby, M. (1996). A Pioneer Gentlewoman in British Columbia: the recollections of Susan Allison. University of BC Press.
Yabsley, C. J. (1991, Spring). Conspiracy of Legislation: The Suppression of Indian Rights in Canada. BC Studies.
• Movement of People and Tension: Cause & Consequence, The Cariboo Gold Rush & First Nations –
Part II – How did Canadian settlers view First Nations during the Cariboo Gold Rush? How can we evaluate these values today?
1/ Divide students into small groups (3-4 students) each group looks at one of the following documents (modified, highlighted or condensed to their main ideas): (1) Joseph Trutch and Indian Land Policy: by Robin Fischer (2) Conspiracy of Legislation: The Suppression of Indian Rights in Canada: Chief Joe Mathias and Gary R. Yabsley; (3) A Pioneer Gentlewoman in British Columbia: The Recollections of Susan Allison: Ed. Margaret Ormsby. Each article or set of documents discusses some of the groups living around the Fraser around the years of the Gold Rush.
2/ Introduce/ revisit the concept of Historical Evidence.
3/ Students may fill out the following Historical Thinking Evidence Worksheet while reading the documents.
4/ Introduce/ revisit the concept of Historical Perspective and the Ethical Dimension. Questions: What tensions do these documents reflect? What information would you need to know in order to evaluate the actions referenced in these documents? Can these actions be justified? Why, why not? What criteria we use when evaluating past and current events? Should our current values be applied to past events? Why, why not?
• Movement of Goods: Cause & Consequence & The Cariboo Gold Rush– What impact did the Cariboo Gold Rush have on British Columbia? How does this historical event reflect the themes of movement & tension in Resende’s work?
1/ Students assess how the gold rush changed primary, secondary and tertiary industry in British Columbia during this time period.
2/ In small groups students are assigned one of the three industry categories (primary, secondary or tertiary).
3/ Using chart paper, have students define the category they are working on and state examples of that particular type of industry Students then brainstorm ideas of what changes occurred during the Gold Rush in their assigned category (see resource web sites list below).
4/ Groups share with the whole class.
5/ Compare ideas and collaborate on a common chart.
• Continuity & Change: New Westminster & the Fraser River – How do historical photographs reflect the themes of movement and tension in Resende’s work?
1/ Introduce/revisit the concept of Continuity & Change. Using the Historical Photo Databas of the New Westminster Public Library , have students search for historical images of the area where New Westminster Pier Park is located (along the Fraser River).
2/ Students select three images of the area from different historical time periods and document dates and citations and save them.
3/ They then find three more recent images (one of which should be close as close as possible to the current year) and do the same.
4/ Groups collate photographs and text by using a digital timeline generator like Capzles* or by producing timelines on larges sheets of paper.
5/ Groups answer to the following questions as part of their work: What does the story of your timeline show? What has changed the most in the area around New Westminster Pier? What has changed the least? What are some of the turning points? Were there times of more continuity or more change? How could your timeline be divided into chunks or periods? What events might be most important for New Westminster’s citizens? What events might be most important for industry owners? What clues do these photographs give us about how transportation and infrastructure have changed and/or impacted the community over time?
6/ After posting the photographic timelines in the classroom, teacher can challenge the students to answer the question: During the passing of time between the photographs, do you think the area around New Westminster Pier park or improved or declined? Students are asked to take into account economic change, social and cultural change, and environmental change.
7/ Visiting the Artwork: Visit Resende’s installation in New Westminster and encourage students to freely explore and interact with the artwork when students visit the artwork. Consider having them take their own digital images using their smart phones and add them to these timelines OR BIG IDEAS Anywhere educators: View the Guided Tour Video (Available Soon) MUTE ON and encourage students to explore at different angles individually and in groups.
Culminating question: How has Resende’s work transformed the landscape in New Westminster?
*(Capzles is a free iTunes app accessible from any computer. It allows users to tell a story using pictures, video clips, audio tracks and text. Users can place this media, called “moments”, together chronologically in a timeline. The result is called a “capzle”. Moments can be viewed individually, or all can be viewed in progression. Capzles can be shared with friends by sending an email link.)
Tension, Controversy & Debate – How does public art incite controversy? How does Resende’s work reflect and also incite it? Teacher reads the April 30, 2014 article from New Westminster Newsleader, aloud to the class surrounding the “Wow Factor” controversy over Resende’s New Westminster artwork. In small groups students are asked to express their opinion on the issue. Do they agree, strongly agree, disagree or strongly disagree that Resende’s work should be funded and placed New Westminster Pier Park? The entire class then engages in a Four Corners Activity
• Teacher and students can reflect on their entire learning process by revisiting the Enduring Understanding and Guiding Questions.
• How did the unit of study open inquiry, create cross–curricular learning opportunities and/or apply learning to real life situations? Has this unit of inquiry changed your opinions, values and worldview? In what ways, if any, has it helped you grow as a learner?
Ideas for Cross-Curricular Access
• Mathematics, Science & Arts Education: Designing a Cargo Container Activity – How can you design and construct a cargo container that will support the most weight?
1/ Cargo container model must be designed after a cargo container type and is to have an assigned scale.
2/ Teacher uses Designing a Cargo Container Worksheet to guide students through this exercise.
3/ Introduction and review instructions to groups of tow.
4/ Using computer, each group is to review cargo container types, choose a container type to model, assign a scale for their container, sketch their container design, and begin construction of their container model.
5/ Reviews progress and continue with the construction of their container model.
6/ Each group to destructively test the container model in front of the class and calculate its efficiency of design.
7/ Complete the worksheet.
• Language Arts – Expressing a Persuasive Argument About Public Art:
Can writing change a person’s opinions and/or worldview? Perhaps one of the best and most widely recognized examples of persuasive writing in action is the classic editorial.
1/ Inquiry into what students know: What is an editorial? Have you ever read one? What is the purpose of an editorial?
2/ Teacher may show NY Times editorial page editor Andrew Rosenthal’s Brief Video and give students his 7 Pointers Summary (Word).
3/ Teacher review the controversy over Resende’s work and reads them a selected editorial from the controversy (see April 30, 2014 article from New Westminster Newsleader)
4/ Students complete Part 1 of the Persuasive Writing/ Editorial- Format Worksheet (PDF) in pairs.
5/ Students use Part II of the Persuasive Writing/ Editorial- Format Worksheet (PDF) as a guide to draft their own editorials on Street Art.
6/ Drafts are peer edited to revise ideas, organization, voice, word, choice and sentence fluency.
7/ Editorials may be read aloud and/ or posted to classroom blog.
8/ Students may comment on the editorials or responses to these editorials on the blog.
Written by: Stephanie Anderson Redmond, B.A.; B.Ed.; M.Ed.; Ph.D. Student, Department of Curriculum and Pedagogy, UBC
©2014 Vancouver Biennale